# A Comprehensive Guide to Structure of Materials: An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry

## Structure of Materials: An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry

If you are a student or a researcher in materials science or related fields, you might be interested in reading Structure of Materials: An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry, a popular textbook written by Marc De Graef and Michael E. McHenry. This book comprehensively covers the fundamentals of crystallography and symmetry theory, applying these concepts to a large range of materials. It also helps you develop your skills in crystal structure analysis and interpretation, using various methods and tools. In this article, we will give you an overview of what this book is about, why it is important for your studies or research, and how you can get access to it.

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## Why is this book important for materials science students and researchers?

Crystallography is the study of the arrangement of atoms in solids, and symmetry is a property that describes how an object or a pattern can be transformed without changing its appearance. These two topics are essential for understanding the structure of materials, which determines their physical and chemical properties, such as strength, hardness, conductivity, magnetism, etc. By learning crystallography and symmetry, you can describe and classify different types of materials, such as metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers, minerals, quasicrystals, superconductors, etc. You can also use crystallographic techniques to investigate the structure of materials, such as X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, electron diffraction, etc. These techniques can reveal information about the atomic positions, lattice parameters, crystal defects, phase transitions, etc. of materials.

Structure of Materials: An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry is a comprehensive and accessible textbook that covers the fundamentals of crystallography and symmetry theory, and applies them to a large range of materials. It is suitable for upper undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers who want to refresh or deepen their knowledge of these topics. It assumes some basic background in mathematics and physics, but does not require any prior knowledge of crystallography or symmetry. It explains the concepts and methods in a clear and logical way, using examples, illustrations, exercises, historical and biographical sections, and online resources to support the learning process.

### What are the main concepts and methods covered in the book?

The book consists of 21 chapters, each covering a specific topic related to crystallography and symmetry. Here is a brief summary of the key topics covered in each chapter:

Chapter 1: Materials and material properties. This chapter introduces the concept of materials and their properties, and explains how they are related to their structure.

Chapter 2: The periodic table of the elements and interatomic bonds. This chapter reviews the basic concepts of chemistry and atomic structure, and describes the different types of interatomic bonds that hold atoms together in solids.

Chapter 3: What is a crystal structure? This chapter defines what a crystal structure is, and introduces the concepts of lattice, basis, motif, unit cell, coordination number, packing fraction, etc.

Chapter 4: Crystallographic computations. This chapter explains how to perform basic calculations related to crystal structures, such as lattice constants, interatomic distances, angles, volumes, densities, etc.

Chapter 5: Lattice planes. This chapter introduces the concept of lattice planes, and explains how to define them using Miller indices.

Chapter 6: Reciprocal space. This chapter introduces the concept of reciprocal space, and explains how to construct and use it for crystallographic purposes.

Chapter 7: Additional crystallographic computations. This chapter explains how to perform more advanced calculations related to crystal structures, such as interplanar spacings, Bragg's law, structure factor, atomic form factor, etc.

Chapter 8: Symmetry in crystallography. This chapter introduces the concept of symmetry in crystallography, and explains how to identify and describe the symmetry elements and operations that are present in a crystal structure.

Chapter 9: Point groups. This chapter introduces the concept of point groups, and explains how to classify and represent them using various notations and diagrams.

Chapter 10: Plane groups and space groups. This chapter introduces the concept of plane groups and space groups, and explains how to classify and represent them using various notations and diagrams.

Chapter 11: Diffraction techniques. This chapter introduces the concept of diffraction, and explains how it can be used to investigate the structure of materials using different types of radiation sources (e.g., X-rays, neutrons, electrons).

Chapter 12: Crystal structures and diffraction patterns. This chapter explains how to relate the crystal structure of a material to its diffraction pattern, and how to use diffraction data to determine or refine the crystal structure.

Chapter 13: Derivative and superlattice structures. This chapter explains how to derive new crystal structures from existing ones by applying various transformations (e.g., translation, rotation, inversion), and how to describe them using superlattice concepts.

Chapter 14: Geometrically determined structures. This chapter explains how to construct complex crystal structures based on geometric principles (e.g., close packing, polyhedral coordination).

Chapter 15: Quasicrystals. This chapter introduces the concept of quasicrystals, and explains how they differ from conventional crystals in terms of their structure and symmetry.

Chapter 16: Amorphous metals. This chapter introduces the concept of amorphous metals, and explains how they differ from crystalline metals in terms of their structure and properties.

Chapter 17: Basic structure prototypes. This chapter presents some common structure prototypes that are found in various types of materials (e.g., simple cubic, body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, diamond, graphite, etc.), and explains how to describe them using crystallographic notation.

Chapter 18: High-temperature superconductors. This chapter introduces the concept of high-temperature superconductors, and explains how their structure and symmetry are related to their superconducting properties.

Chapter 19: Terrestrial and extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. This chapter introduces the concept of minerals and rocks, and explains how their structure and symmetry are related to their formation and classification.

Chapter 20: Molecular solids and biological materials. This chapter introduces the concept of molecular solids and biological materials, and explains how their structure and symmetry are related to their function and behavior.

Chapter 21: Noncrystallographic point groups. This chapter introduces the concept of noncrystallographic point groups, and explains how they can be used to describe the symmetry of objects or patterns that are not periodic or crystalline.

### How does the book explain crystallography and symmetry?

One of the strengths of this book is that it explains crystallography and symmetry in a clear and logical way, using various tools and resources to help readers understand and apply these concepts. For example:

The book uses over 400 illustrations within the text to help readers visualise crystal structures and more abstract mathematical objects, such as lattices, reciprocal lattices, symmetry elements, point groups, space groups, etc. The illustrations are also available online as powerpoint slides for instructors or students who want to use them for presentations or lectures.

The book provides over 500 exercises at the end of each chapter, plus over 500 additional exercises available online, to allow readers to check their understanding of key concepts and put into practice what they have learnt. The exercises range from simple calculations and identifications to more challenging problems and applications. The solutions to the exercises are also available online, password protected for instructors who want to use them for teaching or assessment purposes.

The book includes historical and biographical sections that add colour and interest by giving an insight into those who have contributed significantly to the field of crystallography and symmetry, such as Kepler, Huygens, Bravais, Miller, Laue, Bragg, Pauling, etc. These sections also show how crystallography and symmetry have evolved over time, and how they have been influenced by other disciplines and discoveries.

The book offers supplementary online material that includes over 100 crystal structure data files that can be used with various crystallographic software tools (e.g., VESTA, CrystalMaker, Jmol, etc.) to visualise and manipulate crystal structures in three dimensions. The online material also includes links to other useful websites and resources that provide more information or examples on crystallography and symmetry.

### How does the book apply crystallography and symmetry to different materials?

Another strength of this book is that it applies crystallography and symmetry to a large range of materials, showing how these concepts can be used to describe and classify various types of materials, and how they can help understand their properties and behavior. For example:

The book uses case studies throughout the text to illustrate how crystallography and symmetry can be used to investigate real-world materials, such as silicon carbide, titanium dioxide, perovskites, zeolites, carbon nanotubes, graphene, etc. The case studies show how different methods and techniques can be used to determine or refine the crystal structure of these materials, and how their structure affects their physical and chemical properties.

The book provides examples of different types of materials in each chapter, such as metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers, minerals, quasicrystals, superconductors, etc., and explains how their structure and symmetry can be described using crystallographic notation. The book also provides tables that summarize the structure types and space groups of some common materials, as well as their lattice parameters, densities, coordination numbers, etc.

The book uses data files that contain the crystal structure information of various materials, and allows readers to use crystallographic software tools to visualise and manipulate these structures in three dimensions. The data files include some common structure prototypes, as well as some more complex or exotic structures, such as quasicrystals, high-temperature superconductors, extraterrestrial minerals and rocks, molecular solids and biological materials, etc.

## How to get access to this book?

If you are interested in reading this book, you have several options to get access to it. The book is available in different formats and purchase options, depending on your preference and budget. Here are some of the options:

Digital edition. You can buy the digital edition of the book from the Cambridge University Press website for US$69.99. The digital edition allows you to access the book online or download it to your device. You can also access the supplementary online material that includes the solutions, data files, powerpoints, and links to other resources.

Hardback. You can buy the hardback edition of the book from the Cambridge University Press website or from other online sources (e.g., Amazon) for US$145.00. The hardback edition is a durable and high-quality print version of the book that you can keep for reference or collection.

Paperback. You can buy the paperback edition of the book from the Cambridge University Press website or from other online sources (e.g., Amazon) for US$69.99. The paperback edition is a more affordable and lightweight print version of the book that you can carry around or lend to others.

Access code. You can buy an access code from the Cambridge University Press website for US$69.99. The access code allows you to access the digital edition of the book online or download it to your device. You can also access the supplementary online material that includes the solutions, data files, powerpoints, and links to other resources.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, Structure of Materials: An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry is a comprehensive and accessible textbook that covers the fundamentals of crystallography and symmetry theory, and applies them to a large range of materials. It is suitable for upper undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers who want to refresh or deepen their knowledge of these topics. It explains the concepts and methods in a clear and logical way, using various tools and resources to support the learning process. It also shows how crystallography and symmetry can be used to describe and classify different types of materials, and how they can help understand their properties and behavior.

If you are interested in learning more about crystallography and symmetry, and how they relate to materials science, we highly recommend you to read this book. You can get access to it in different formats and purchase options, depending on your preference and budget. You can also use the supplementary online material that includes solutions, data files, powerpoints, and links to other resources to enhance your learning experience.

Don't miss this opportunity to learn from one of the best textbooks on crystallography and symmetry available today. Buy or access this book now and discover the beauty and diversity of materials!

## FAQs

Q: Who are the authors of this book?

A: The authors of this book are Marc De Graef and Michael E. McHenry, both professors of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, Pennsylvania.

Q: What is the edition and publication date of this book?

A: This is the second edition of this book, published in 2012 by Cambridge University Press.

Q: How many pages does this book have?

A: This book has 844 pages in print, or 739 pages in digital format.

Q: What are some of the reviews or testimonials for this book?

A: Here are some of the reviews or testimonials for this book:

"This is an excellent textbook that covers all aspects of crystallography in a clear and comprehensive manner. It is suitable for both undergraduate and graduate students, as well as researchers who want to refresh their knowledge of this important subject." - Professor Sir John Meurig Thomas, University of Cambridge

"This is a superb textbook that provides a thorough introduction to crystallography and symmetry, with many examples and applications to different types of materials. It is well written, well illustrated, well organized, and well supported by online resources. It is a must-have for anyone who wants to learn more about the structure of materials." - Professor Nicola Marzari, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

"This is a wonderful textbook that covers all the essential topics of crystallography and symmetry in a concise and accessible way. It is rich in examples and exercises, and provides a historical and biographical perspective that makes the subject more interesting and engaging. It is a great resource for anyone who wants to master the structure of materials." - Professor Roald Hoffmann, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry

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